The huge number of different programming languages can make someone starting out feel worried. Should I be learning this language? Is a language better than another? Should I be spending time learning this language instead?
Another programming paradigm that is not as common but is still worth knowing about is Functional Programming. Some examples of this include Lisp, Haskell, Clojure, Scheme, Erlang... The reason for this, from my perspective, is that it offers the programmer a new perspective on how to approach programming. In addition, many popular programming languages, such as Python, C++11, Kotlin, Scala and Rust have support for functional-style programming. Having this as another tool in your arsenal is a very worthwhile pursuit (that, and functional programming is just really neat and fun).
With that said, here is a collection of some reference and resources for some of the popular languages. Hopefully this will be of use if there is ever a need to learn a new language.
Edited August 2020 by Quang Tran - Class of 2022. Contact me @bennington.edu if you have any questions or want to suggest an edit.